The primary raw material of chocolate is cocoa beans, which originated in Mexico. It has an activating effect on proteolytic enzymes in human gastric juice and can help digestion. However, the process of chocolate is more complicated, and machines such as chocolate refiner, chocolate tempering machine, and chocolate molding machine are generally used.
1. Basic Classification Of Chocolate
(1). Tasteless chocolate:
the texture is very hard, as a semi-finished product, making chocolate fillings, etc., the content of cocoa butter is higher than 50%.
(2). Dark chocolate:
or pure chocolate, with greater hardness and slight bitterness. The pure cocoa butter content is more than 50%, mainly composed of cocoa powder, sugar, and lecithin.
(3). Milk chocolate:
It comprises cocoa products (cocoa mass, cocoa powder, cocoa butter), dairy products, powdered sugar, flavors, and surfactants. Milk chocolate contains at least 10% cocoa butter and 12% milk.
(4). White chocolate:
White chocolate does not contain cocoa powder, but the cocoa butter content is not less than 20%. The composition of milk chocolate is almost the same, the range of dairy products and powdered sugar is relatively large, and the sweetness is high.
(5).Chocolate without cocoa butter:
To reduce costs, manufacturers will use “cocoa butter substitutes” to replace cocoa butter extracted from cocoa beans in the production of chocolate. This product is now called chocolate candy or chocolate-flavored food.
2. Raw Material Pretreatment.
To meet the technological requirements of chocolate hair production, it is advantageous to mix and make some raw materials in advance.
(1). Cocoa liquor and cocoa butter pretreatment:
Cocoa liquor and cocoa butter are solid raw materials at room temperature, so the chocolate tempering machine must melt the cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, and other natural materials before mixing with other raw materials.
Feed the materials later. The temperature of the chocolate tempering machine should not exceed 60°C, and the holding time after melting should be as short as possible and not too long. The significant raw material should be cut into small pieces in advance and then melted to speed up the melting speed.
(2). Pretreatment of sugar:
Before being mixed with other chocolate raw materials, pure and dry crystalline granulated sugar is generally crushed and ground into powdered sugar for
To better mix with other raw materials, improve the utilization efficiency of the chocolate refiner, and extend the service life of the equipment.
3. Mixing, Grinding, And Refining
When producing chocolate, we must first mix various ingredients of chocolate, such as cocoa mass, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder, etc., into a uniform chocolate sauce: the production of this chocolate sauce is done by a chocolate machine. Yes, the chocolate machine device includes the functions of mixing, kneading, quantification, and feeding. According to the formula, after quantification and feeding, it is mixed to form a smooth lipid mass. The cocoa butter becomes a continuous phase and is dispersed among other materials. The various ingredients are evenly combined and can provide favorable conditions for the regular operation of the chocolate refiner.
When powdered sugar is used in the ingredients, the chocolate sauce can be mixed directly and sent to the chocolate refiner. However, if the sugar is now integrated with other chocolate raw materials, it needs to undergo preliminary grinding or pre-grinding and then use the chocolate refiner for fine grinding.
According to the requirements of the chocolate refiner’s grinding process, the total fat content of the chocolate sauce after mixing is required to be about 25%. Therefore, the amount of fat added during mixing should be controlled to ensure that the chocolate sauce is not too dry or too wet to ensure grinding when the roller is running normally.
The mixed chocolate sauce is sent to the feed hopper of the primary mill by a screw conveyor or directly into the primary mill through a conveyor belt. The direct or exemplary grinding machine has an automatic feeding hopper and a device that can prevent the engine from running dry and causing mechanical wear. The primary mill is a two-roll mill, and the chocolate refiner is a five-roll mill that can be connected in series for fine grinding. Not only can it reduce the amount of grease, but the small sauce particles after pre-grinding are more conducive to the grinding of the five-roll mill and the skill of the scouring machine.
(3). Changes in materials during refining and refining：
Although the fineness of the chocolate material after grinding has reached the requirement, it is not lubricated enough and tastes unsatisfactory. The various materials have not been wholly combined into a unique flavor, and there are still some uncomfortable tastes. Further refinement.
4. Refining Process And Method Of Chocolate Refiner
(1).Refining time of chocolate refiner：
We can use a chocolate refiner for refining. Depending on the type of chocolate, the refining time is also different. For example, the refining time of milk chocolate is shorter, about 24h, while the refining time of dark chocolate with high cocoa content is more prolonged, approximately 48h. Use a chocolate refiner; it Will be more convenient.
(2).Refining temperature of chocolate refiner：
Milk chocolate is refined at 45~50℃, while dark chocolate is refined at 60~70℃.
(3).The refining method has developed from liquid refining to dry, liquid refining and dry, plastic, and liquid refining.
Use a chocolate refiner to refine the chocolate material through two stages, namely the dry and liquefaction stage. Chocolate refiner combines the two sets of dry refinement and liquid refinement. The first is that the total fat content in the dry phase is between 25% and 26%, refined in powder form. This stage mainly enhances friction, turning and shearing, so that moisture and volatile substances are volatilized. In the second stage, the oil and phospholipids are added in the liquid state to refine, further homogenize the materials, make the plasmids smaller and smoother, and enhance the fragrance and mouthfeel.
(4).The chocolate refiner is refined in three stages: dry phase, plastic phase, and liquid phase:
Dry refining stage: reducing moisture and undesirable compounds, such as residual volatile acids, aldehydes, and ketones in cocoa beans, to the ideal level that does not affect the final chocolate taste.
Plastic refining stage: In addition to eliminating the agglomerated materials, it once again improves the taste quality like traditional refining. Liquid phase refining stage: The final refining stage further improves the refining effect of the previous step and forms the most suitable flavor under the best fluidity.
5. Keep The Chocolate Sauce Warm
After the chocolate refiner refines and refines the chocolate sauce, there is a heat preservation process to keep it in a fluid state before entering the next cycle. Heat preservation aims to reserve sauces, adapt to continuous production, and create necessary conditions for the chocolate tempering machine to carry out the temperature adjustment process.
Usually, the chocolate sauce should be kept at 40~45℃, carried out in the heat preservation tank. The heat preservation tank is a double jacketed cylinder, which can be
Pass in hot and cold water for heat preservation or use electric heating for heat preservation. There are complex and hot water inlets at the lower end of the cylinder and an overflow at the upper end.
A strip-shaped central agitator is installed in the body’s center, and two sets of cross-shaped strip-shaped auxiliary agitators and the central agitator form a 90° vertical rotation.
6. Adjust The Temperature Of The Chocolate Sauce
After the chocolate sauce is refined, it is in a liquid state. Before it turns into a solid state, it should be processed by a chocolate tempering machine because the glyceride molecules in cocoa butter will make themselves form polymorphs. The existence of these different crystals will affect the shrinkage of the chocolate when it cools and solidifies, as well as changes in physical properties, such as rough surface, whitening, and lack of luster. The low melting point polycrystals in cocoa butter are very unstable, and the low melting point crystal form tends to evolve to the high melting point stable crystal form. The chocolate tempering machine realizes this process, so the change of the cocoa butter crystal form in the chocolate sauce is controlled. The process is called thermoregulation.
7. Chocolate Molding
(1). Chocolate molding machine：
Pouring molding is to run the chocolate sauce that has been adequately tempered into a model with a specific size and shape. After proper cooling, it will solidify into solid chocolate with a good luster, a particular form, and a certain weight. Usually, there are three different types of casting molding:
(2). Piece or block molding-pure chocolate molding:
Shell mold molding-sandwich chocolate molding, including inverted mold shell and ice cone shell;
Hollow molding-including clamping and book molding.Generally, we use a chocolate molding machine for casting molding. However, chocolate refiner for refining in the early stage needs to be careful to make the chocolate molding machine more efficient.
8. Chocolate Packaging
Chocolate packaging generally uses coated paper, white cardboard, gray board paper, cardboard paper, and corrugated paper. In addition, the proportion of high value-added functional pieces such as water-resistant, oil-resistant, acid-resistant, deodorant, and wafer paper is gradually increasing.
Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the tightness of chocolate packaging to extend the storage time of chocolate.